Domestic vs. International Adoption
Which Type of Adoption is Right for Your Family?
When an adoptive family begins to explore the idea of adopting a child, it is easy for them to quickly become overwhelmed with information, questions and decisions.
One dilemma many families face is whether to pursue domestic adoption or international adoption. These families often wonder: “Is it easier to adopt a child from another country? Is one process less expensive than the other? What is the difference between domestic and international adoption?”
There are many factors adoptive parents must consider: cost, wait time, children available, medical and social history, legal concerns and more.
Ultimately, each family will have to make the best decision for their situation. When thinking about domestic vs. international adoption, neither one is always the right choice. It all depends on your unique circumstances.
These are some of the biggest factors families will consider when deciding between domestic vs. international adoption.
The difference in the cost of international adoption vs. domestic adoption is a subject that many people don’t understand. In fact, adoption costs as whole, and the reasons they are necessary, is something that most don’t have a good grasp on.
When it comes to international vs. domestic adoption, total costs are usually similar, typically ranging from around $25,000 to $50,000. But both processes also have their own unique costs.
For example, hopeful parents adopting domestically will not have to budget for a visa, unlike those adopting internationally. Conversely, an expense that parents adopting domestically may have is to provide living expenses for the expectant mother, such as help with rent or utility payments. This is an expense that is not typically seen in international adoptions.
Parents adopting internationally should also be prepared to travel to and stay in the country they are adopting from for a period that could range from a few days to several weeks. Multiple visits may also be necessary. These travel expenses are somewhat unpredictable, and can be one of the most important factors in determining where your total adoption costs fall in that range of $25,000 to $50,000. Any adoptive parents contemplating international adoption should carefully research travel requirements for countries they are considering adopting from.
Families adopting domestically should be prepared to travel to the birth mother’s location for the birth of the baby and stay until the baby is released from the hospital. If the baby is born outside of the adoptive family’s state, the family must stay until ICPC approval has been granted, which usually takes 7 to 10 business days.
If you’re feeling overwhelmed by these numbers (many families do!), you may want to research the many available ways to finance your adoption.
Domestic Adoption Requirements vs. International
The requirements for adoption are different depending on the type of adoption, the agency you work with and the place you are adopting from. When you adopt domestically, you must meet the requirements of the state and the agency. One example of this could be meeting minimum age requirements.
International adoption is typically more stringent. Some countries have marriage requirements and others have higher age limits. Unfortunately, many countries still do not allow LGBTQ couples to adopt.
Is it easier to adopt internationally or domestically? The difficult of meeting requirements will depend on your unique situation. Generally speaking, you will have a greater chance of facing more demanding requirements when adopting from a different country.
The time it takes for a family to complete a domestic adoption vs. international adoption is dependent on many factors.
For families adopting domestically, many factors contribute to this wait time, including their adoption professional’s advertising efforts and the adoptive family's flexibility in their adoption plan: race of child, contact with birth parents, medical background, substance usage and budget. The more open a family is to certain situations, the more exposure their adoption profile will receive and the less time they will typically wait.
While it is difficult to assess the wait times of other adoption professionals, approximately 75 percent of the families working with American Adoptions adopt within our estimated wait times of 1 to 12 months.
The wait times for international adoptions also vary and depend on a family’s adoption plan, as well as country-specific issues. For example, many U.S. families adopt children from China. At this point in time, the U.S. and China have a good relationship when it comes to adoption, and wait times are relatively stable. On the other hand, there are countries with volatile political climates that can drastically impact families and children. Ethiopia abruptly closed the country to all foreign adoptions recently, disrupting hundreds of adoption plans. Something similar happened when Russia decided to halt all U.S. families adopting Russian children.
These changes can happen suddenly and leave families in limbo, making international adoption wait times longer and less predictable in many countries. Families considering international adoption should carefully research wait times and current U.S. relationships with the countries they are considering adopting from to ensure they will have a stable adoption process.
While wait time is an important factor to consider, it should not necessarily make or break your decision of domestic vs. international adoption. It all comes down to your specific situation and priorities.
According to the latest research by the National Council for Adoption, the number of private domestic agency adoptions has risen steadily over the years, from 14,549 children in the early 1980s to 18,329 domestic infant adoptions completed in 2014 (the most recent year statistics are available).
While domestic adoption continues to grow, international adoption has declined significantly over the past several years, with just 7,092 adoptions in 2013, down from 8,668 in 2012, 9,319 in 2011 and 11,058 in 2010.
In 2010, the countries with the most U.S. adoptions were China (3,401), Ethiopia (2,513) and Russia (1,082). In 2013, China declined to 2,306, Ethiopia to 993 and Russia to 250. Today, as previously noted, Ethiopia and Russia have closed their borders to U.S. adoptions.
There are many reasons for this — most of them on the logistical and political side of the international adoption process. This does not reflect a decreasing need for adoptive families to provide loving homes to waiting children. There are still millions of children in the world who need to come home to a family through adoption; the process of doing so is just more complicated today than it was during the peak of international adoptions in the mid-2000s.
Domestic vs international adoption statistics, as you can see, show types of adoption on two different paths. While these numbers are helpful in understanding the big picture, they don’ have to impact your decision. Your family is unique, and you can choose the type of adoption that will be best for you.
The age of children available for adoption also depends greatly on the type of adoption families pursue:
Private domestic adoption usually results in the adoption of an infant (children of all ages are available through domestic foster care adoption)
International adoption ranges from infants to teenagers, depending on the country of origin
Medical Background Information
One of the biggest differences when comparing domestic adoption and international adoption is the availability of medical and social history of the child and their birth parents.
Medical records of children adopted internationally are often minimal, if available at all. Information regarding the social history of the child's birth parents — such as family medical history or any possible exposure to drugs or alcohol while the child was in the womb — is also often unavailable, and the effects of such exposure are often unrecognized until after the child is placed with a family.
Additionally, not all countries’ medical facilities and medical treatments are on par with the United States’, so some adoptive families are concerned with adopting a child who has not received the same level of medical care as a domestic child. However, this same fact can be a motivating factor for a family who wants to provide a child with the type of care that they could not receive in their country of origin.
Finally, those adopting an older child internationally should also be prepared for a long road toward healing. Children who experience neglect, abuse and trauma at a young age can develop attachment disorders and other challenging behaviors. What these children needs most is safe, loving attachment. There are resources that can help parents on this journey. But make no mistake about it: this is rarely easy.
On the other hand, families adopting domestically are usually provided the medical records of the child and the social history of the birth parents pertaining to the child. Beyond this, the majority of domestic infant adoptions are semi-open, which means adoptive families and birth parents have the chance to maintain ongoing communication. This has been shown to benefit everyone involved in the process, especially the child. When it comes to international adoption, an open or semi-open relationship is nearly impossible, as the family often knows little to nothing about the birth parents.
At American Adoptions, adoptive families are free to choose which circumstances they are comfortable accepting in their child’s medical and social history. For example, if the family is not comfortable adopting a child whose birth parents have a history of depression, or who may have been exposed to alcohol in the womb, they will not be considered for those situations.
Domestic adoption and international adoption also have their own unique legal concerns.
Hopeful parents adopting internationally should fully research the adoption process required by each country, as each has its own set of legal mandates that must be met before the adoption is finalized. This can make international adoption more complicated to complete. Not only are finalizing the adoption according to U.S. law, but also international laws of the country of origin, not to mention the additional visa, immigration and citizenship processes.
One very large legal concern in domestic adoption is the myth that the child's biological parents may come back years later and take the child back. This is also a common argument against open adoptions, as many people are lead to believe that contact with the birth parents will lead to the birth parents' desire to revoke their consent, even after the adoption is finalized. For this reason, many adoptive families believe that international adoptions are "safer," due to the fact that there is routinely no contact with the birth parents in international adoptions prior to and after the completion of the adoption.
The fact is that once an adoption is finalized by the U.S. courts, the adoptive family is recognized as the child's family by law. Although adoption laws vary state to state, the laws remain very clear. Despite stories in a few high-profile cases, post-adoption revocations are extremely rare and are usually a result of unsound legal practices.
Weighing the Options
If you are debating between domestic vs. international adoption, there is a wealth of information across the Web. We recommend you do plenty of research and investigate multiple private domestic adoption agencies and international adoption agencies so that you make the best choice for your family.
Here are several prominent pros and cons to consider.
International Adoption vs. Domestic Adoption Pros and Cons
Pro: Domestic adoption gives you the opportunity to adopt a newborn
Con: The cost associated with domestic adoption can be expensive
Pro: International adoption provides a loving family for a child who desperately needs a home
Con: International adoption can be costly and unpredictable
Pro: Domestic adoption creates the opportunity for open and semi-open adoption
Con: Open adoption is rarely possible in international adoption
These are only a few things to consider. Take your time making this important choice.
To learn more about international adoptions, you can reach out to an international adoption agency to learn more about their services.
Information available through these links is the sole property of the companies and organizations listed therein. America Adoptions, Inc. provides this information as a courtesy and is in no way responsible for its content or accuracy.